There are some division between Christianity and Judaism. According to Judaism, Christianity, which is the new covenant, is pagan and has nothing to do the Tanakh [Old Testament]. However the Bible uses symbols to represent both the old and new covenant. We will list symbolism of the old & new covenant.
1. Abel & Seth
Abel represents the old covenant. Like Abel, the Hebrews sacrificed first born animals (Genesis 4:4, Deuteronomy 15:19-21). Though Abel was righteous, he still killed by an enemy. This symbolizes how no matter how many animal sacrifices the Hebrews did before the resurrection of Christ, everyone went to Hell (Zechariah 9:11).
Seth represents the new covenant. Like Seth replaces Abel, the new covenant replaces the old one (Genesis 4:25, Isaiah 28:18, Hebrews 8:13). Seth means anointed in Hebrew. The word Christ derived from the Greek word, Christós, which means anointed. Whoever truly receives Christ in their hearts are anointed by the Holy Spirit (1 John 2:20).
2. Ishmael & Isaac
Ishmael represents the old covenant. He didn’t receive an inheritance from his father but did became a nation (Genesis 17:16, Genesis 21:10). This is similar to the people under the old covenant who doesn’t inherit anything after death (Ecclesiastes 3:19-20, Isaiah 26:15).
Issac represents the new covenant. Like Issac, the people under the new covenant receives an everlasting inheritance from their father (Genesis 21:10, John 14:1-3, Revelation 3:11). Like Issac, people under the new covenant is blessed due to what one person did (Genesis 26:4-5, Hebrews 13:20).
3. Esau & Jacob
Esau represents the old covenant. Like the old covenant, Esau brought grief to his father (Genesis 26:34-35, Hosea 6:6, Malachi 1:2-6). Like Esau, people under the old covenant focused on natural things (Genesis 25:29-34, Genesis 27:41, Numbers 11:1-34, Matthew 15:1-3).
Jacob represents the new covenant. Like Jacob, people under the new covenant receives grace, which is unmerited favor (Genesis 28:12-15, Malachi 1:2-3, Romans 5:15). Jacob focused on spiritual things (Genesis 28:18-22, Genesis 32:26). Similarly to people under the new covenant (Galatians 6:8, John 4:24, Ephesians 6:12). Jacob’s father sustained him with grain and wine (Genesis 27:37). This is similar to the new covenant being sustained with the bread of Heaven, which is the word of God, and the blood of Christ (Deuteronomy 8:3, John 6:32, Luke 11:13, Revelation 12:11).
Jacob was master to his brother (Genesis 27:37)). Similarly the new covenant is master to the old covenant (Hebrews 8:13). God told Rebekah,“Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples from within you will be separated; one people will be stronger than the other,and the older will serve the younger.” – Genesis 25:23. This foretold the old and new covenant. The people under both old and new covenant are separated today as Christians and Orthodox Jewish. New covenant is stronger than the old covenant due to the blood of Christ (Hebrews 9:15-18, Revelation 12:11). The old covenant served as a purpose to bring forth the Messiah (Luke 3:23-38, Matthew 1:16).
4. Rachel & Leah
Jacob had to marry the older sister first in order to marry the woman he wanted (Genesis 29:25-28). Likewise to the old & new covenant. God had to create the old covenant before establishing the new covenant through Jesus Christ (Jeremiah 31:32, Hebrews 8:6).
5. Perez & Zerah
The twins of Tamar and Judah represents the old and new covenant. Perez is in both genealogies of Jesus Christ (Luke 3:23-38, Matthew 1:16). Even though he was the youngest he had a scarlet thread indicating he was the oldest (Genesis 37:27-29). This represents the new covenant being superior to the old one due to the blood of Christ.
6. King Saul & King David
King Saul represents the old covenant. He focused on pleasing mankind instead of God (1 Samuel 13:11-13). Likewise with people under the old covenant (Mark 7:8). Like King Saul, people under the old covenant relied on sacrifices rather than appeasing God (1 Samuel 15:19-23, Hosea 6:6, Micah 6:6-8).
King David represents the new covenant. He focused on his relationship to God instead of pleasing people (Psalm 23, Psalm 51, 1 Samuel 17:45, 2 Samuel 6:16-23). Likewise to people under the new covenant (Galatians 6:8, Acts 5:3, Romans 1:16). King David replacing King Saul represents the new covenant replacing the old covenant (2 Samuel 2:4, Isaiah 28:18, Hebrews 8:13).
7. Queen Vashti & Queen Esther
Queen Esther replacing Queen Vashti represents the new covenant replacing the old one. Like Esther, people under the new covenant prepares as to be a bride (Esther 2:12, 2 Corinthians 11:2, Revelation 22:17). The king held a banquet for Esther when she became the official bride (Esther 2:18). Likewise to people under the new covenant in Heaven (Matthew 22:2, Matthew 25:10, Revelation 19:7-9).
If you find any other symbolism of the old and new covenant, write in the comment section and we will post it in the article!